Wednesday, June 10, 2020
Erica JongÃ¢â¬â¢s Fear of Flying is about 29-year-old poet Isadora Wing, who is bored in a bourgeois marriage. She dreams of a sexual encounter with a stranger, and when she travels with her husband to Vienna and meets the attractive Adrian Goodlove, she indulges in this fantasy. At the time of the bookÃ¢â¬â¢s release in 1973, women were not supposed to fantasize about sex, and Jong wrote the book to give voice to women who were trapped the same way Isadora was. Sexuality is important both metaphorically and thematically in the novel, and it is through IsadoraÃ¢â¬â¢s quest for a more fulfilling experience that she learns about herself, her insecurities and how to deal with them. Erica Jong states in the Foreword to the 2008 edition of the book that she wrote Fear of Flying to Ã¢â¬Å"tell the truth about women whatever it cost meÃ¢â¬ (foreword, viii), and one of the truths she wanted to tell was that women also fantasized about sex, and that this is something that should be a ccepted in society. Her goal with the novel was to Ã¢â¬Å"slice open a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s head and show everything happening insideÃ¢â¬ (foreword, ix), Jong claims that before her, no one had done this. She also writes that it Ã¢â¬Å"remained for a woman to expose female fantasy with as much franknessÃ¢â¬ as John Updike and Philip Roth who had Ã¢â¬Å"dared to take literature into the precincts of the bedroomÃ¢â¬ (foreword, ix). This is also mentioned by the main character, Isadora, in the novel. She discusses how up until women started writing books there was only one side of the story of sex being told, and comments that Ã¢â¬Å"throughout all of history, books were written with sperm, not menstrual bloodÃ¢â¬ (27). Here Jong is expressing clearly one of her main intentions with the novel, through her main character. One reason for why Erica Jong is still talked about today is because she was one of the first female novelists to introduce the concept of casual sex with a stra nger, with no strings attached. Jong called this Ã¢â¬Å"the zipless fuckÃ¢â¬ in Fear of Flying, and this term is what many associate the novel with. When Isadora describes her fantasy of the zipless fuck, she explains that Ã¢â¬Å"when you came together zippers fell away like rose petals, underwear blew off in one breath like dandelion fluff.Ã¢â¬ (14) One of the criteria for such an encounter is that the people involved do know not each other. Because of this, in this situation Ã¢â¬Å"there is no power gameÃ¢â¬ (14), thus making it Ã¢â¬Å"the purest things there isÃ¢â¬ (14). The storyline revolves largely around IsadoraÃ¢â¬â¢s quest for this experience, and it is Adrian Goodlove who is supposed to become IsadoraÃ¢â¬â¢s great sexual encounter in the story. Instead the opposite happens and she ends up getting to know the unsympathetic man that Adrian is, and on top of that hardly has any sex at all with him. However, her affair with Adrian is largely what drives Isadora to learn about herself and what she really wants, and is a driving force for the novel and IsadoraÃ¢â¬â¢s development.Although Fear of Flying may seem like a book simply about a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s quest for sex and passion on the surface, there is more to it that Jong wanted to convey. Sex is a very important factor in the novel, not necessarily because it is supposed to be a pornographic account solely depicting a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s thirst for sex. It is not a novel about sex in that sense, but sex is used to represent womenÃ¢â¬â¢s battles in the 70s and earlier. The feminist movement was not a fight for sexual equality, though this was included in it, but in Fear of Flying sex represents the struggle. IsadoraÃ¢â¬â¢s internal struggle for sexual satisfaction is supposed to help show how what was seen as acceptable amongst men is unthinkable in terms of women. But the novel also directly addresses other feminist issues at the time. It comments on and criticizes what the society sees as the womanÃ¢â¬â¢s role. The novel appeared in the middle of the second wave of feminism in the United States, and Jong tries to express many of the issues American women faced at the time that led to feminist activity. Isadora, like many other women in the sixties, rejected what Betty Friedan, an important writer and feminist in the second wave of feminism, called Ã¢â¬Å"the feminine mystiqueÃ¢â¬ in her nonfictional book from 1963 with the same title. Here she explained that women were led to believe that only with a husband and children to take care of could they have a real identity. The protagonist in the novel goes against this expectation to be only a wife and a mother, by having a job and by refusing to have children. Isadora did marry twice, but has never felt the need to become a mother. A reason for this is because then the child would belong in part to the man who impregnated her. The world she lives in is male dominated, and she refuses to get pregnant for this re ason, as well as because becoming a mother would come in the way of her writing, and she sees her diaphragm as Ã¢â¬Å"a barrier between my womb and men.Ã¢â¬ (52) Jong is here trying to convey the feeling many women had at the time when the womenÃ¢â¬â¢s movement broke out in the sixties. Many refused to have children because they were terrified of ending up like their mothers, as housewives in unhappy marriages. Many young girls saw how their mothers ended up and viewed motherhood as a trap that could not be broken out of. Isadora gives a voice to these women in her novel, asking:Ã¢â¬Å"What did it mean to be a woman, anyway? If it meant what Randy was or what my mother was, then I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want it. If it meant seething resentment and giving lectures on the joys of childbearing, then I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want it. Far better be an intellectual nun than that.Ã¢â¬ (53)But then Isadora also decides that being a nun is not much better, because they had Ã¢â¬Å"no juiceÃ¢â¬ (53 ). She has a lust for sex that stops her from completely breaking away from men. When she is running around with Adrian, drunk on champagne and infatuation, she fantasizes about their marriage and comments that Ã¢â¬Å"No sooner did I imagine myself running away from one man than I envisioned myself tying up with another.Ã¢â¬ (86) It is because of her boring marriage with Bennett that she desires Adrian, but she would not dream of divorcing Bennett for sex. This is because Isadora, like many others, wants the safety and stability that comes with having a respected husband. Ã¢â¬Å"I simply couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t imagine myself without a man. Without one, I felt lost as a dog without a master; rootless, faceless, undefined.Ã¢â¬ (86) Isadora would rather be in an unhappy marriage than to endure living as a single woman at this time. She observes that Ã¢â¬Å"there is simply no dignified way for a woman to live aloneÃ¢â¬ (11) and that she could barely survive financially, and on top of that she would be forever hassled by everyone around her about her Ã¢â¬Å"husbandlessness, her childlessness Ã¢â¬â her selfishness in short.Ã¢â¬ (11) In other words, in IsadoraÃ¢â¬â¢s and many other womenÃ¢â¬â¢s view, it was better to be dependent on a man than to be independent in a manÃ¢â¬â¢s world. Without a man, she feels she has viable no identity. As mentioned, Isadora knew that she, along with most other women, would never really be able to be as financially secure alone as she would be if she was married:Ã¢â¬Å"Damned clever, I thought, how men had made life so intolerable for single women that most would gladly embrace even bad marriages instead. Almost anything had to be an improvement on hustling for your own keep at some low-paid job and fighting off unattractive men in your spare time while desperately trying to ferret out the attractive ones.Ã¢â¬ (87)She criticizes this reality while at the same time taking part in it. One of the reasons she has for mar rying and also staying with Bennett is the fact that he encourages her writing instead of putting it down. According to society, she was doing something wrong and selfish by wanting to write instead of giving birth. IsadoraÃ¢â¬â¢s sister Randy often makes an issue out of it, telling her to Ã¢â¬Å"stop writing and have a baby,Ã¢â¬ because sheÃ¢â¬â¢ll Ã¢â¬Å"find it so much more fulfilling than writingÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (49) She cannot understand why anyone would want to live outside what is the convention.Sex is a major part of the book because it is very important to the protagonist. Isadora mentions sex in a great many situations and a lot of her issues revolve around this. When describing Bennett, her present husband, she points out his Ã¢â¬Å"long thin fingers, hairless balls, a lovely swivel to his hips when he screwedÃ¢â¬ (35), and she also mentions that she Ã¢â¬Å"fell in love with Bennett partly because he had the cleanest balls IÃ¢â¬â¢ve ever tasted.Ã¢â¬ (33) Thou gh she may be exaggerating here for the sake of being witty, her sexual attraction to Bennett was a significant part of why she fell for him, showing that sexuality is obviously a very important part of the protagonistÃ¢â¬â¢s life.As mentioned earlier, Isadora has had no desire of having children, so it is lust and the sexual act itself that is so important to her when it comes to sex. Isadora says that her husband is turned on by AdrianÃ¢â¬â¢s pursuit of her and asks herself and the reader rhetorically Ã¢â¬Å"what doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t come to fucking in the end?Ã¢â¬ (33) Sex seems to sum up a lot for Isadora. In the latter part of the book, when she is lying in bed with Adrian, who is not able to have sex with her, she wonders about menÃ¢â¬â¢s inability to get an erection in general:Ã¢â¬Å"Besides, the older you got, the clearer it became that men were basically terrified of women. Some secretly, some openly. What could be more poignant than a liberated woman eye to eye with a l imp prick? All historyÃ¢â¬â¢s greatest issues paled by comparison with these two quintessential objects: the eternal woman and the eternal limp prick.Ã¢â¬ (97) As shown here, Isadora often seems to draw parallels between sex and life in general. But at the same time she criticized Freud for doing the same thing earlier on in the novel. She comments that Freud assumes that women want a Ã¢â¬Å"stiff prickÃ¢â¬ (27) because men want it. Ã¢â¬Å"A big one, Freud said, assuming that their obsession was our obsession.Ã¢â¬ (27) She also reflects upon this being the case because only men had been writing books, and therefore Ã¢â¬Å"there was only one side to the storyÃ¢â¬ (27). But at the same time IsadoraÃ¢â¬â¢s life and issues revolve around sex, and in a way she confirms what she criticizes Freud for assuming. The protagonist often seems like a very insecure woman, although she strives to seem independent and self-assured. She responds passively to most things that happen to her and seems to just go along with whatever happens to her, thus frequently ending up with men that are not entirely good for her. This may be why so many women responded positively to the book when it was published. Many recognized themselves in Isadora, stuck in boring marriages with only their secret fantasies to get them through the day. This is the reality that Betty Friedan had criticized ten years earlier, and Jong gave many women a voice with her novel. She conveyed what so many kept inside out of fear, because it was unacceptable for women to be lusting after sexual pleasure like men did. Isadora herself is criticized by her sister Randy for being honest and revealing her feelings and desires and for being what Randy calls a Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬Ëstinking exhibitionistÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ (48). Jong wanted to reach out to all the women who felt repressed, reveal what she felt was wrong with society and encourage women to take charge of their own lives. One reason for why Fear of Fl ying was so shocking when it was published in 1973 was because of IsadoraÃ¢â¬â¢s language. Words that may seem common now were scandalous then and are used many times throughout the novel. Sex is described seemingly without shame with descriptions like Ã¢â¬Å"his curled pink penis which tasted faintly of urine and refused to stand up in my mouthÃ¢â¬ (95). As early as the first page of the novel, Isadora explains how her Ã¢â¬Å"nipples stand up and salute the inside of my braÃ¢â¬ (3) and even this was a rather shocking sentence coming from a woman at the time of the bookÃ¢â¬â¢s initial release. Isadora repeats words like Ã¢â¬Å"cuntÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"fuckÃ¢â¬ , and does not hesitate to use phrases like Ã¢â¬Å"the longing to be filled up, to be fucked through every holeÃ¢â¬ (9) or Ã¢â¬Å"his tongue was playing music in my cuntÃ¢â¬ (95). Erica Jong writes herself in the Foreword that it was not IsadoraÃ¢â¬â¢s fantasies that made her a role model for women all over, but her Ã¢â¬Å"general exuberanceÃ¢â¬ (foreword, ix). The novel has an open ending, and it is unclear if Isadora ends up single or returns to her husband Bennett on a more permanent basis, but what has been achieved through her experience with Adrian is that Isadora has learned how to take control of her own life. Whatever Isadora ends up doing, she does because she really wants to, and not because it is expected of her. This is how the book ends, with Isadora learning to trust herself more. She has learned that searching for the perfect Ã¢â¬Å"zipless fuckÃ¢â¬ is a lost battle and comments that Ã¢â¬Å"the man under the bed can never be the man over the bed. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢re mutually exclusive. Once the man comes up from under heÃ¢â¬â¢s no longer the man you desiredÃ¢â¬ (286). She has learned that a fantasy is and can only be a fantasy, and that instead of chasing it she should learn how to live and deal with what she has. Near the end of the book there is an incident on a train where a train attendant attempts to have sex with her in the compartment. Instead of seeing this as the opportunity she has been waiting for, Isadora is shocked and pushes him away. She later realizes that this could have been her Ã¢â¬Å"stranger on a trainÃ¢â¬ (331) and that she simply found him revolting. Again this shows how she has learned to separate fantasy from reality. Fear of Flying is a story of a woman who goes from being insecure and bewildered both about sexuality and herself in general, to knowing who she is and what she wants. It is through her search for the Ã¢â¬Å"zipless fuckÃ¢â¬ that she gets to this point, and it is also because of this journey that she learns to take the plunge for what she at least believes is freedom. Isadora learns to live life on her own terms, and her search for a fantasy has led her to this knowledge. Bibliography:Jong, Erica. Fear of Flying. London: Vintage Books, 1998.Kerber, Linda K., Alice Kessler-Harris, and Kathryn Kish Sklar. U.S. History as WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s History. Chapel Hill London: University of North Carolina Press, 1995.
Sunday, May 24, 2020
Gasoline consists of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons. Most of these are alkanes with 4-10 carbon atoms per molecule. Smaller amounts of aromatic compounds are present. Alkenes and alkynes may also be present in gasoline. Gasoline is most often produced by the fractional distillation of petroleum, also known as crude oil (it is also produced from coal and oil shale). The crude oil is separated according to different boiling points into fractions. This fractional distillation process yields approximately 250 mL of straight-run gasoline for each liter of crude oil. The yield of gasoline may be doubled by converting higher or lower boiling point fractions into hydrocarbons in the gasoline range. Two of the main processes used to perform this conversion is cracking and isomerization. How Cracking Works In cracking, high molecular weight fractions and catalysts are heated to the point where the carbon-carbon bonds break. Products of the reaction include alkenes and alkanes of lower molecular weight than were present in the original fraction. The alkanes from the cracking reaction are added to the straight-run gasoline to increase the gasoline yield from the crude oil. An example of a cracking reaction is: alkane C13H28 (l) Ã¢â â alkane C8H18 (l) alkene C2H4 (g) alkene C3H6 (g) How Isomerization Works In the isomerization process, straight-chain alkanes are converted into branched-chain isomers, which burn more efficiently. For example, pentane and a catalyst may react to yield 2-methylbutane and 2,2-dimethylpropane. Also, some isomerization occurs during the cracking process, which increases the gasoline quality. Octane Ratings and Engine Knock In internal combustion engines, the compressed gasoline-air mixtures have a tendency to ignite prematurely rather than burning smoothly. This creates engine knock, a characteristic rattling or pinging sound in one or more cylinders. The octane number of gasoline is a measure of its resistance to knock. The octane number is determined by comparing the characteristics of a gasoline to isooctane (2,2,4-trimethylpentane) and heptane. Isooctane is assigned an octane number of 100. It is a highly branched compound that burns smoothly, with a little knock. On the other hand, heptane is given an octane rating of zero. It is an unbranched compound and knocks badly. Straight-run gasoline has an octane number of about 70. In other words, straight-run gasoline has the same knocking properties as a mixture of 70% isooctane and 30% heptane. Cracking, isomerization and other processes can be used to increase the octaneÃ rating of gasolineÃ to about 90. Anti-knock agents may be added to further increase the octane rating. Tetraethyl lead, Pb(C2H5)4, was one such agent, which was added to gas at the rate of up to 2.4 grams per gallon of gasoline. The switch to unleaded gasoline has required the addition of more expensive compounds, such as aromatics and highly branched alkanes, to maintain high octane numbers. Gasoline pumps typically post octane numbers as an average of two different values. Often you may see the octane rating quoted as (RM)/2. One value is theÃ research octane numberÃ (RON), which is determined with a test engine running at a low speed of 600 rpm. The other value is theÃ motor octane numberÃ (MON), which is determined with a test engine running at a higher speed of 900 rpm. If, for example, a gasoline has a RON of 98 and a MON of 90, then the posted octane number would be the average of the two values or 94. High octane gasoline does not outperform regular octane gasoline in preventing engine deposits from forming, in removing them, or in cleaning the engine. However modern high octane fuels may contain additional detergents to help protect high compression engines. Consumers should select the lowest octane grade at which the cars engine runs without knocking. Occasional light knocking or pinging wont harm the engine and doesnt indicate a need for higher octane. On the other hand, a heavy or persistent knock may result in engine damage. Additional Gasoline and Octane Ratings Reading American Petroleum InstituteÃ - The API represents the US oil and natural gas industry.Automotive Gasoline FAQÃ - This is Bruce Hamiltons very well-referenced article, converted into HTML by Kyle Hamar.Gasoline FAQs Part 1Ã - Starting point for Bruce Hamiltons (Industrial Research Limited) comprehensive gasoline FAQs.Gasoline FAQsÃ - Detailed information about octane ratings is provided.HowStuffWorks: How Car Engines WorkÃ - If you dont know how it works, then this is the article for you! The graphics are cool, but a printable version of the article is also available.HowStuffWorks: What Does Octane Mean?Ã - This is Marshall Brains answer to the question.
Sunday, May 17, 2020
Sample details Pages: 6 Words: 1887 Downloads: 3 Date added: 2019/04/26 Category Sociology Essay Level High school Tags: Gender Roles Essay Did you like this example? In todays society appearance is everything. Looking the part and playing the role can allow one to go a long way in media, but particularly advertisement. Honestly, who has not mumbled or thought to themselves while watching an advertisement, I wish I looked like that? A commercial for intimate wear or a trendy cosmetic line can have women looking in the mirror critiquing their physical appearance while reviewing their flaws. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Portrayal of Gender Roles in Advertisement: Effects on Womens Self-Esteem" essay for you Create order Mass media and advertisement can form insecurities within women which play on their self-esteem. Its important to examine the negative stereotypes in media and advertisement which cause reporting of low self-esteem. Advertisement impacts its viewers, so that is why its important to understand the impact on how it shapes the perception of the viewer. Self-esteem and advertisement are not often correlated with one another, but its evident that women are affected mentally and physically which can have effects on their self-esteem. Advertisement focuses on gender roles and how women are positively and negatively portrayed. This study will focus on the effect gender roles on the self-esteem of women and how they can be view differently. Society plays a role in creating low self-esteem in women from a young age due to the many unrealistic expectations that women try to live up to. Its crucial to see the positive, so one doesnt get lost in expectations that society and media has placed on them. Literature Review It is known that people turn to forms of mass media for information when they lack the knowledge and experience with subjects or situations (Lee, 2009). Cultivation Theory suggests that people mostly rely on television messages for a worldview, which causes unambiguous views on social reality. Cultivations theory is a form of communication that claims repeated exposure to images in mass media could affect the viewers perception of reality (Riddle, 2009). Social norms and perception of reality are created by the worldly views. Lee (2009) claims that behaviors are replicated when the subject is physically attractive, which grants for a pleasing outcome. Johnson and Holmes (2009) stated that those who seek and follow an unrealistic perception of reality, when the outcome doesnt replicate to the desired fantasy, they will be disappointed. This can be problematic granted the outcome doesnt turn out in their favor. Perception can allow one to believe that what they see is right or correct. An example would be a viewer watching unhealthy eating being displayed by a model who has the idea or perfect figure, they view will hold the same expectations for themselves not realizing that an unrealistic perception has been shown to them. Adults, both younger and older who set their goals on idealized images, which they desire to look like, will repeated have their expectations violated. This leads to low self-esteem and low self-satisfaction (Johnson Holmes, 2009). These images will be used in media through advertisement, with hope to capture the viewers attention. Media can have a major impact on its viewers. Commercial advertisement significantly impacts its viewers because fictional perceptions of reality are considered the social norm and valid. Riddle (2009) stated that those who are consistently exposed to commercial advertisement, these individuals have an altered knowledge and worldview of everyday life. The more the mass media messages are exposed, the more likely the viewer will accept the content. Viewers are less likely to differentiate fiction from reality once they have been exposed to high consumptions of these forms of messages (Riddle, 2009). This can be controversial because women who view advertisements may receive the wrong idea, as most advertisement involving women suggest that females should look like models, be trendy and stylish, while concealing their physical flaws. Advertisement messages affect all who view them whether they know it or not. These messages shouldnt be adapted as the social norm or part of one everyday reality. It is important to create self-expectations during adolescences, as taking on the wrong views can impact one long-term (Riddle, 2009). Gender Roles Advertisements can be persuasive to the consumer as it suggests the viewer has a need for the item, which motivates the purchase. Women are known to focus on their beauty, which explains why most female target advertisements are focused on products to achieve or enhance ones beauty to receive the look of perfections (McKinley, 2005). Advertisements used female to sell products, this can determine the idea that they are often objectified (Skorek Schreier, 2009). Advertisements are used to sell a lifestyle; the product must be viewed as a necessity for ones life. Happiness and values play a role into the products that are on display to be sold (Skorek Schreier, 2009). Women and men are portrayed differently in media. Generalized stereotypes are used to represent women, which gives off the impression that they are subordinate to men. Skorek and Schreier (2009) reported that ten percent of women portrayed working professional roles, such as waitress, secretary, or assistant. Females we re viewed as subordinate figures in these advertisements. It was thought that women and presented that women are unable of completing work related task without the help from a male or a machine to assist them. Eisend (2010) boosted the idea that business was an industry for men. In many advertisements, men are seen in positions such the manager or pilot, while women are seen in positions as their secretary or flight attendant, which promotes gender biases and stereotypes. Media portrays women using many different forms of stereotypes. These stereotypes can be viewed negatively as women have evolved into dominating forces within society. Opportunities are not only presented for men, as women have suited up to take on many roles and challenges over the years. Negative stereotypes of women shown in media, just to name a few; womens place is home and in the kitchen (Skorek Schreier, 2009). These forms of advertise once gave off the impression that women dont deal with the decision makings of the home. The task of the homemaker wasnt viewed as an important job. The perception has always been that women need men for support, protection. Its true that once women dependent of men and were only seen as sexual objects. Women appear in sexually suggestive content more then men (Lundstrom Sciglimpaglia, 1977). Its seldom for women to be shown as participants in competitive sports or competitions of any sort. They are viewed as an object that men come home to af ter a long day of work; they are viewed as just the housewife. Researchers have found claims to support that fact that women portrayed in media are always subjected to the same stereotypical roles. Women are not commonly shown in working roles, as business members, or having power and authority over men (Skorek Schreier, 2009). Due to there being many negative stereotypes in media in how women are being presented, its crucial to take a further look at the perspective from the view point of women. This will give an insight more intently on how women are being objectified in media. Perspective Women feminist believe that womens experiences, concerns, and ideas are as valuable as those of men and should be treated with equal seriousness and respect (Kim, 2008, p.392). Frequent grievances towards media and advertisement portrayals of women would be the consistent idea that females dont hold positions of authority, the idea that all workplaces are dominated by men, and sex-role socializations (Stephenson, Stover, Villamor, 1997). Feminist primarily focus on dominance and social order (Kim, 2008) and they argue that women should be treated and granted that same equality in media and advertisement representation as men. The goal is to cease the idea that males are the dominate gender, but aim to have women and men viewed as equals and to eradicate the messages being used to stereotype and generalize women. When media and advertisements can get to a place where they generalize the viewpoints of females less, that is when they will be better represented in a different aspect of s ocial life (Lee, 2009). Self-Esteem Research The gathered information on mass media and how women are portrayed in advertisement the hypothesis suggest: H: Negative images of females result in high exposure of stereotypes in media advertisement which correlates with low self-esteem among females of all ages. Methods Participants This study mainly involved female interactions with media and advertisement. They used 350 female high school students living on the west coast of the United States. They used participants of different races, which consisted of Caucasians (70%), African Americans (18%), Hispanics (7%), Asian (4%), and other (1%). The students consisted of freshman (12%), sophomores (34%), juniors (25%), and seniors (29%). The students study ages ranged from 14 to 18 with an average age being 15 (60%). Procedure Two high schools were sought out to conduct this study. Administrators contacted the school board to receive permission to survey the students during lunch hours and after school. The school allowed for flyers to be sent out to all female students, providing information regarding a survey that they could participate in. Female students needed to submit a verbal interest as well as a parental permission slip, granted them access to participate in the survey. The survey was voluntary and only given to those with consent from a parent or guardian. The first survey was conducted in a classroom during the lunch period for those who wished to participate at that time. The second survey was conducted after school in the lunch cafeteria. The survey was handed out to each student during both sessions once all participants were checked in. The instructors explained the instruction of the survey prior to being handed out. The students were advised not to share the any information regarding the survey with their peers. One instructor advised the student on how to properly take the survey while the other instructor passed out the survey and pencils to the students. The content for the survey consisted of a fifty question questionnaire which involved effects media has on ones emotions. The students were informed that their survey would be submitted anonymously so names were not needed to be place on the paper, and that they answers were voluntary. Instrumentation Demographic Items The survey included questions on the students grade, age and race. Media Exposure Media exposure was measured by focusing on female stereotypes and depictions in commercial advertisements. A nominal scale which focused on yes or no questions was also used. These nominal questions included: Do you watch commercial advertisements? and Do you observe commercial advertisements directed towards females? The Likert scale questions included: How many times a week do you view commercials advertisements? and How often do you notice the stereotypes in which females are portrayed in commercial advertisements? Responses ranged from (1) never view to (5) always view. Self-Esteem The Rosenbergs Self-Esteem Scale (RSE) was used to measure self-esteem. The RSE scale contained 5 items; from strongly agree (1) to strongly disagree (5) on a 5-point Likert scale (Rill et al., 2009) Samples questions were added to measure the overall emotional level of esteem. High scores reflected high level of self-esteem, while lower scores reflected lower levels of self esteem. The coefficient was rated .85 in a previous study. Sample questions included, I often feel worthless and I often have low sense of accomplishment. Data Plan The Pearson Correlation tested the hypothesis. This test calculated the correlation coefficients of the two variables. Both the independent variable and dependent variable are interval/ratio. The hypothesis suggests that high exposure to negative images of female stereotypes in media and advertisement correlate with low self-esteem.
Thursday, May 14, 2020
What do you think about drinking during pregnancy? Do you know what FAS is? Do you want your child to have FAS? Read on and I believe you will come to the same conclusion as I have about FAS. FAS doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t sound so bad, but in reality it is. FAS means Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. FAS is a combination of physical and mental defects first evident at a babyÃ¢â¬â¢s birth. FAS is a direct result of a woman drinking alcohol during pregnancy. These defects continue through out the childÃ¢â¬â¢s life. One in five hundred children are born with FAS. Your baby is at risk no matter how much liquor you drink. It doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t matter if itÃ¢â¬â¢s beer, wine, or hard liquor. The chemicals in the liquor quickly pass through into the placenta, which means the baby absorbs as muchÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Small teeth with faulty enamelnbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp; nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp; Other physical characteristics: Permanent brain damage nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp; Heart and kidney defects nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp; Long-term behavourial problems nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp; Growth problems-shorter and smaller size nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp; Deformed fingers and toes nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp; Deformities of joints, limbs, and fingers nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp; Slow physical growth before and after birthShow MoreRelatedFetal Alcohol Syndrome942 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Fetal Alcohol Syndrome According to Seaver, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is birth defects causing learning, and behavioral problems in individuals whose mothers drank alcohol during pregnancy. This disorder is very serious, yet it is recognized as one of the most preventable. This causes major issues, when something so serious could be prevented but is not. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is a problem because it leaves a permanent effect on the unborn child, but some solutions could be educating women andRead MoreFetal Alcohol Syndrome1466 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesFetal Alcohol Syndrome Ã¢â¬Å"If women didnÃ¢â¬â¢t drink anymore during pregnancy, there would never be another baby born with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome or Fetal Alcohol EffectÃ¢â¬ (McCuen 33). This is a very powerful statement. It is also a very simple cure for an alarmingly high birth defect that all women have the power to stop. Ã¢â¬Å"Every year more than 40,000 American children are born with defects because their mother drank alcohol while pregnant Ã¢â¬Å" (McCuen 34). That is 1 to 3 per 1,000 live birthsRead MoreThe Disorder Of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome1018 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthe the disorder Fetal Alcohol Syndrome .This paper will aim to discuss what the disorder is ,it s history how it is diagnosed and the treatment and prevention of this disorder. Taking a sip a int hip Introduction :Behold, thou shalt conceive, and bear a son; and now drink no wine nor strong drink, neither eat any unclean thing(Bible-Judges 13:7).It has been known throughout history that the effects of alcohol use in pregnancyRead MoreEssay on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome1390 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageslead to many severe abnormalities in the growing fetus. More specifically, a disorder that will be explored in this essay is Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS); caused by alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Since the alcohol is consumed in such a developing stage of the fetus, it can potentially cause many different complications in the unborn child. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome could easily be prevented with more awareness to the issue and its defining characteristics, how it affects the fetus during growthRead MoreFetal Alcohol Syndrome Essay1707 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesof prenatal alcohol exposure (Lupton, 2003). This number will only continue to grow if the risk of drinking alcohol while pregnant i s not brought to the peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s attention. When the mother takes a drink of alcohol, so does the fetus, which will cause physical and behavioral problems after birth. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is completely preventable and irreversible. FAS awareness and prevention is important; expectant mothers need to know the background information about the syndrome, some commonRead MoreFetal Alcohol Syndrome Essay1699 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesFetal Alcohol Syndrome Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is a condition affecting children born to women who drink heavily during pregnancy. There are three criteria used to describe the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure and to make a diagnosis of FAS. The first of these is a pattern of facial anomalies, these features include: #61558; Small eye openings #61558; Flat cheekbones #61558; Flattened groove between nose and upper lip #61558; Thin upper lip These characteristicsRead MoreFetal Alcohol Syndrome Essay1096 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesFetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is a mental and physical birth defect. It occurs when a pregnant women consumes high levels of alcohol during her pregnancy. The effects of FAS can be traumatic in some cases, and in others children were slightly affected by exposure to alcohol. FAS has a wide range of effects on the fetus and infant, retarded growth, under developed facial features, slow cognitive development, and many more. The evidence of cases is overwhelming, yet in some societies it is still anRead MoreFetal Alcohol Syndrome Essay1522 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesFetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is a disorder that can happen to children whose mothers drank sufficient amounts of alcohol sometime throughout their pregnancy. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is a condition classified in a group called Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders, and is the most known and severe of the group. FAS, depending on the factors such as location, population and race studied is considered one of the leading known causes of mental retardation and birth defects, with 0.2 Ã¢â¬â 1.5 out of every 1Read MoreEssay on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome2703 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesFetal Alcohol Syndrome Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is a pattern of mental, physical, and behavioral defects that may develop in the unborn child when its mother drinks during pregnancy. These defects occur primarily during the first trimester when the teratogenic effects of the alcohol have the greatest effect on the developing organs. The symptoms associated with FAS have been observed for many centuries, but it was not until 1968 that Lemoine and his associates formally described theseRead MoreFetal Alcohol Syndrome Essay1727 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesFetal Alcohol Syndrome Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is an increasing problem in our world today. At least 5,000 infants are born each year with FAS, or about one out of every 750 live births, which is an alarming number. In the United States there has been a significant increase in the rate of infants born with FAS form 1 per 10,000 births in 1979 to 6.7 per 10,000 in 1993 (Chang, Wilikins-Haug, Berman, Goetz 1). In a report, Substance Abuse and the American Woman, sent out by the Center on Addiction
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Compensation Practice: World atWork Name Institution Introduction Compensation practices in this study have been used to refer to the remedies that an organization s management chooses to implement in order achieve it set a goal and the same time satisfying the needs and wants of both consumers and employees. In this examination, WorldatWork has been considered for careful and extensive research to give insight into the issues that are directly/indirectly involved in compensation practices. WorldatWork WorldatWork is a hotel cleaner firm located in the United States of America. Hsieh, Apostolopoulos, SÃ ¶nmez, (2013) noted that the nature of this job is usually unattractive. Most of the workers perform their duties underÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Best Practices at WorldatWork The World at work has a tendency of rewarding it high performers regarding the duties assigned to individual workers. Usually, these rewards are informed of money. The firm firstly dishes out required payments. Secondly, it gives a cumulative summation of all the benefits accrued by a worker during performing their duties (Komati Ross, 2013). Employees who continually perform better than others are rewarded with development opportunities. This may include delegating some responsibilities to them and taking them for further training at an advanced level (Komati Ross, 2013). To ensure that WorldatWork retains its skilled workforce, the managers are usually keen to make it known to these hardworking individuals that their skills and workforce to the firm are appreciated. Therefore, managers seek to bond with their employees and improve their personal relations with them (Komati Ross, 2013). How compensation practice determine the positive and adverse impact to WorldatWork and its stakeholders WorldatWork has been actively involved in the execution of compensation practices with the view of enabling the firm s resilience on the industry through the satisfaction of different consumers needs and wants. The company has put more weight and considerations to the welfare of workers by making sure that almost all their grievances are
Personality Theories Introduction In psychology, personality can be described as the the patterns of behavior, thought, and emotion unique to an individual, and the ways they interact to help or hinder the adjustment of a person to other people and situations (personality, 2012). Psychologists may make use of idiographic or nomothetic techniques in order to study personality of an individual. Many characteristics of human behavior can be examined while studying ones personality. To put in simple words, personality theories are utilized for organizing what is known, stimulating new research, and specifying a view of personality in a formal way. Trait, psychoanalytic, social learning, and humanistic views are the 4 groups of such theories which have been developed in the precedent century (Kasschau, 1985). Psychoanalytic Theory The Psychoanalytic Theory was put forwarded by Sigmund Freud in which he considered the human personality as a whole by dividing it into 3 functional parts namely id, ego, and superego. Freud regarded the id as the unfathomable stage of the unconscious, subjugated by the gratification principle. He viewed it as having an object to gratify the instinctual drives. He saw the superego to have been originated in an infant through identification with parents. The supergo, according to him, has a purpose of functioning as an inner repressor of the urges of the id in response to social pressures. In contrast, ego was seen by him as a part of theShow MoreRelatedThe Theory Of Personality : A Psychoanalytic Theory1084 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesFreud developed a theory to describe the structure of personality called a psychoanalytic theory. This theory suggested that personality consists of the interaction of three component parts of personality and the mind: the id, ego, and superego. These three components are separate, but work together to make up the self. Each of these are important when it comes to development, and they are all a part of everyone. However, even though these components are at work in everyone, one may be more prominentRead MorePsychoanalytic And Psychodynamic Theory Of Personality938 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesPsychoanalytic/ Psychodynamic: The psychodynamic perspective focuses on the role of the unconscious mind in the development of personality. Freud believed that the personality develops in a series of five stages that develop the three divisions of personality. In the oral stage, the fixation is in the mouth, and would be the cause of his introverted nature; likewise, in the anal stage, Roberto would discover his reserved nature, while the phallic stage, he would further refine his reserved natureRead MoreTheories Of Natural Selection And Psychoanalytic Personality Theories1670 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesrespectively for their natural selection and psychoanalytic personality theories. Charles Darwin helped further the field of evolutionary psychology while Sigmund Freud helped discover the unconscious which is still debated to this day about whether it is real. DarwinÃ¢â¬â¢s natural selection theory talks about how organisms adapt to survive and the two types of sexual selection which is intersexual and intrasexual se lection. FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of psychoanalytic personality talks about how the id, ego, and superegoRead MoreFreud s Psychoanalytic Theory Of Personality1384 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesSigmund FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s psychoanalytic theory of personality. I will describe what his theory is about and about what my thoughts are about if I would use this technique or not in my way in counseling. I will also describe different ways that I would still use the FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s technique but in my own unique way. Sigmund Freud s psychoanalytic theory of personality argues that human behavior is the result of the interactions among three component parts of the mind: the id, ego, and superego. This theory, known asRead MoreFreudian Psychoanalytic Theory Of Personality Development Essay1109 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesFreudian psychoanalytic theory of personality development suggests that human behavior is because of the interactions among three main components of the human mind. The components include id, ego, and superego. The theory has great emphasis on the role of unconscious psychological conflicts that help shape human behavior and personality. The development of personality depends on the conflicting interaction of the main components of the human mind. The conflicts arising and the desire to resolve theRead MoreStructure and Functioning of the Personality in Freudian Psychoanalytic Theory1713 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesStructure and Functioning of the Personality in Freudian Psychoanalytic Theory Sigmund Freud, as the creator of psychoanalytic theory, has begun his career as a neurologist, treating patients with hypnosis to cure hysteria. Because it had almost no affect on curing the patient, he discovered the method of free association, in which patients say whatever comes to their mind. By listening and noticing what patients were saying, he found some similarities in their memoriesRead MorePersonality, Ethics, And Different Aspects Of The Psychoanalytic Theory946 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages We have been talking about personality, ethics, and different aspects of the psychoanalytic theory in these past two weeks. There has been more information that I have learned, along with information I was already familiar with, however, it certainly cleared up things that were a little foggy from before. This class is by far the most interesting class that I have taken and it keeps me engaged every day. I am still looking forward to learning everything else that I have yet to learn. First, I wantRead MorePsychoanalytic Criticism Of Freud s Theory Of Human Personality Essay1039 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Ã Ã Ã Psychoanalytic criticism is built upon Sigmund FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s psychological theories of the unconscious, the desires, and the defenses. The father of psychoanalysis began his work in the 1880Ã¢â¬â¢s, treating the chaos of hysteria first, listening to his patients talk through their problems. From his studies, he came to conclusion that a personÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior is affected by their unconscious, ...the notion that human beings are motivated, even driven, by desires, fears, needs, and conflicts of which they areRead MoreSigmund Freuds Psychoanalytic Theory On Personality Development And Emotional Problems883 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Ã¢â¬ ¢ 1.Sigmund Freud- Psychoanalytic Theory. The Psychoanalytic theory is about personality development and emotional problems. Psychoanalytic theories look at development in terms of internal drives that are unconscious, or hidden from our awareness. There are three basic drives: sexual, survival, and destructiveness. Freud outlined development in phases of Ã¢â¬Å"psychosexual stagesÃ¢â¬ (Gordon and Browne, 2016, p.94) with a body part representing each stage. Oral (birth -2) Mouth source of pleasure: eatingRead MorePsychoanalytical Theory : The Psychoanalytic Theory1217 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesPsychoanalytical Theory: Literary The Psychoanalytic theory is the theory of personality changes through many acts and gestures. Throughout many decades, different clinical methods have been proposed for training psychopathology. This therapy has undergone many different changes. With many studies completed and proved to be true, the psychoanalytic theory has become widely accepted. The psychoanalytic theory is a very important theory as it has proven why such things happen in a persons life.
Electronic_Arts Essay Electronic Arts is a highly successful creator of video games for consoles and PCs. The company also creates content for online gaming. EAI occupies a unique place in the information processing industry. The company must have the skills of a Hollywood studio in order to create compelling content While at the same time negotiating technological change and uncertainty associated with the platforms (e. G. , consoles, PC, Internet) used to operate and distribute the games. The case gives students the opportunity to evaluate the strategic challenges associated tit operating at the nexus of information processing and entertainment industries. This case is often used in conjunction with Electronic Arts in 1995, SMS-AAA. While Electronic Arts in 2002 can be used by itself, use of the w. o cases together gives a good longitudinal perspective on the company, industry and technology. Instructors who use Electronic Arts in 2002 by itself should not use Question 1 below. (Eng: The case Electronic Arts in 1 999, SMS-BOB is largely superseded by the Electronic_ Arts in 2002. The latter case covers the same themes and issues as the 1999 case. ) In terms of the strategic dynamics framework, this case illustrates the challenges of trying to extend P-controlled changes into industries that are converging (or colliding). It also how EAI is trying to transform itself, and realign its actions with starter, as to take advantage of opportunities created by industry convergence. Preparation Questions: I. By 1995, how successful has EAI been? What has been their strategy? What strategic challenges do they face in 1995? 2. How should EAI think about the platform development decisions it faces? 3. How has the Internet affected the video game industry? Why? . In 2002, what should EASE corporate strategy be for the next 5 years? Why? How should it execute this strategy? Analysis: I _ By 19%, how successful has EAI been? What has been their strategy? What By 1395, EAI has been very successful. Between 1990 and 1995, revenue has increased to $420 million and gross profit has increased to $195 million, each growing 500 percent in the period. Net profit has increased to $45 million between 1990 and 1994, or 800 percent. In 1994, Seaside over $400 m Saga Nintendo DO Affiliated Labels EAI had 85 titles in 1994, and 100 titles in 1995 (SASS million in development sots. ) ;EAI grew to tour divisions: ; EAI Sports ; Simulation and Interactive Movies ; EAI Entertainment EAI Kids EAI developed a distinct competence at building a culture that is good at dealing with technical and market uncertainties. Key assets include: ; Product development, ; Marketing, ; Integrating creative, technical and business people into project management, ; Navigational competence, ; Salesrooms for market competence, ; Top management that is knowledgeable about technology. Instructors who also use Electronic Arts in can ask students to recall the evolution of EAI. Instructors can elicit salient points in EASE history. For example, until 1989, the companys strategy had been to develop games for the PC platform. However, by 1989 cartridge-based home video games had emerged as the dominant game platform. At that time, four million IBM PCs and compatibles had been sold creating a market of $230 million for PC-based games, This contrasted with as many as 22 million LIST households with 8-bit consoles, which generated a games market of billion. Of course, the costs of developing games tort the PC were very different trot the costs involved in developing Ames for the then dominant Nintendo platform, That company demanded large up-front royalty payments and manufacturing fees as well as advance commitment to cartridge number, All of which raised the risks associated with developing for the Nintendo platform. These risks were similar to those EAI faced when it bet on Saga during the transition to the 16-bit platform. By mid 1995, EAI faced four key strategic challenges. The company had to prepare for another platform transition, with the industry going to 32-bit processors, while at the same time maintaining leadership in the 16-bit platform. EAI was also developing and leveraging intellectual property new intellectual property by co-branding with Organizations such as the National football League (NH_) and National Hockey League (NIL). By 1995, EAI has also set its sights on international expansion. As before, the company also faced the usual strategic challenge Of attracting and retaining key creative and engineering talent. Platform transitions are very risky periods for EAI. The industry share of market goes up for grabs with each transition, For example, Nintendo dominated the 8-bit platform, while Saga dominated the 16-bit platform. By 2002, EAI is facing BOB-bit platform transition. A transition requires EAI to make a big bet on the company it thinks will win the transition. Instructors can highlight this point to asking students how much cash the company has and discussing the other cash needs the company must balance with transitions. 1. Definition of Down Syndrome EssayGame publishers attract only a minority Of this traffic, With independent sites drawing most Of the traffic. ENS most popular community site was Simplicity. Com, which attracted 1 million users per month for its first 6 months. Traffic thereafter settled to 200,000 monthly visits. 4. In 2002, what should ENS corporate strategy be for the next S years? Why? Discussion of EASE strategy going forward should take into consideration its current strengths and the forces that will shape the company in the future. By 2002, Seas scale allowed the company to leverage its intellectual properties across multiple platforms and geographies. The companys prominence in its industry gave EAI other benefits. EAI had the potential to influence the success of platform by its decisions to publish titles for it. Since the success off platform was tightly linked to the number and quality of games available on them, EAI was regularly consulted by hardware manufacturers concerning technical specifications. This enabled EAI to develop titles faster and better prepare for transitions in the platform cycles. Online gaming Will likely become more important to the company. But for this to happen, several forces exogenous to EAI must come into place. These include greater ubiquity Of broadband Internet connections in homes and continued development of Internet capabilities in consoles. Forces that EAI can influence with respect to online gaming include the development of compelling content for multilayer and massively multilayer games that are particularly well suited to the online channel and creation of an online business model that will generate sufficient revenue to the company. Metatheses: Two important themes that weave through both the 1395 and 2002 cases are the role of organization and culture to EAI. And sources of growth for the company. Indeed, the two themes relate to each other. Instructors can explore how EAI5 organizational structure (small studios with a high degree of autonomy) interrelates with the compass business management structure (e. G. , financial oversight at the center, shared intelligence from the salesrooms, etc). This model allows EAI to scale as it acquires new studios or develops them organically, while retaining financial controls at the corporate center. This is the model the company has used since the 1995 case. New growth, however, may present challenges that cannot be met by Seas current Structure. Where can EAI go next in the entertainment industry? Perhaps there is sufficient growth to be had from EASE efforts to develop online gaming s well as their Other traditional sources Of growth; but perhaps not. Instructors can explore the ways in which EAI could find growth in fast-developing areas new to the company, such as digital animation. Could EAI acquire a digital animation studio such as Paxar? (EAI had a market capitalization of $13. 2 billion compared to that of E. G billion for Paxar in September 2003. ) Would it make sense for EAI to be acquired by an entertainment company with content assets from movie and television production studios, which could lend themselves to video games? Disney is one possibility. Instructors can ask students to consider the benefits and drawbacks of such mergers, particularly in light of the difficulty Time Warner has had since its acquisition of AOL. Electronic Arts Summary by Robert A, Bargeman I _ Technology-based companies face twin uncertainties: ; Technological uncertainty associated with platform changes; ; Market uncertainty associated with changing customer demand. 2. If there is no compatibility across platform generations, then platform changes are highly hazardous because they put market share into play, for example, 8-bit:Nintendo; 16-bit:Saga,; 32-bit:Sony). Periods Of platform change pose difficult strategic challenges because companies must maintain their position on the current generation While making bets on prospective winners in the next generation. 4. To maximize their changes of correctly predicting the next generation of platform winners, companies Ned to create a culture of intense collaboration between techn ical, sales/marketing (business), and design people in the organization. Such a culture constitutes an organizational capability and can be a source of competitive advantage. 5. Creating such a culture is a top management responsibility.